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Product Sample 00105.rar


A cross sectional study was designed to determine the contamination rate of Salmonella spp. in poultry meat samples distributed across 22 regions of Tehran and their correlations with the human isolates obtained in four hospitals from patients with symptomatic diarrhea. The isolation rates diversity based on the industrial brands and weights of the products was also estimated in each region. This study was approved by ethical committee of National Institute for Medical Research Development, Islamic Republic of Iran (IR.NIMAD.REC.1396.105). The sampling was done from June 2018 to March 2019. One hundred fresh chicken carcasses were purchased from approved Tehran municipally daily fruit and vegetable markets. The date and region of the sampling were randomly determined. Each sample was packaged in a separate sterile plastic bag, labeled immediately, and was transported in a cool box. Four hundred stool samples were obtained from three general and one pediatric hospitals in Tehran. All samples were provided from symptomatic outpatients with diarrhea with no recent history of hospitalization and antibiotic therapy. Demographic data (age and sex), macroscopic appearance of the samples and excretion of leukocytes, blood, and epithelial cells, and related data for the food of the patients were recorded in a designed questionnaire.




Product sample 00105.rar



Frequency of Salmonella in poultry meat samples distributed among Tehran municipally daily fruit and vegetable markets in different regions of Tehran


In the case of stool samples, Salmonella was isolated from 5.5% (22/400) of the total samples. As shown in Table 2, the frequency was higher in children and infants than in young adults. The difference was not statistically significant (P=0.63).


The characterized resistance phenotypes in the chicken meat isolates were in the following order: tetracycline (59%), TS (43%), azithromycin (42%), chloramphenicol (27%), cefoxitin (7%), ciprofloxacin (4%), gentamicin (3%), ceftriaxone (1%), imipenem (1%), and cefotaxim (0%). The human isolates showed lower frequencies of the resistance patterns: tetracycline (13.6%), TS (9.1%), azithromycin (9.1%), cefotaxim (0%), chloramphenicol (0%), cefoxitin (0%), ciprofloxacin (0%), gentamicin (0%), ceftriaxone (0%), and imipenem (0%). Multi-drug resistant phenotype was detected in 4.5% (1/22) of the Salmonella isolates from the human stool samples, while it was more frequent among the chicken meat isolates (45.3%, 34/75). Concurrent resistance to 3 classes of antibiotics (3DR) was the most common MDR pattern among the chicken isolates (76.4%, 26/34; Table 3). Azithromycin/ tetracycline/trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (26.4%, 9/ 34), azithromycin/chloramphenicol/tetracycline/ trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (17.6%; 6/34) and azithromycin/chloramphenicol/tetracycline (11.7%; 4/34) were among common characterized MDR phenotypes in the chicken isolates. The only human isolate with MDR phenotype showed azithromycin/ tetracycline/ticarcillin pattern, which was detected in 1 chicken meat sample, similarly. Statistical analysis showed no association between resistance phenotypes detected in the chicken meat and the human isolates. No correlation was found between the characterized resistance phenotypes in Salmonella strains and the brands of chicken meat or the time of production.


Homology of the resistance patterns between the human and chicken meat samples was analyzed. As shown in Fig. 2, different isolates of Salmonella from faecal and chicken samples were placed in different clusters. The largest cluster (cluster A) contained the human and chicken strains sensitive to all antibiotics. Five isolates of poultry meat and 6 isolates of human stool in this cluster belonged to a common sampling period. Comparison of the poultry isolates based on their phenetic resistance patterns, sampling dates, and the urban sampling areas showed spatial and temporal homology among some of the isolates. Other isolates with 100% homologies showed no specific temporal and spatial affinities.


Homology in resistance phenotypes among the Salmonella isolates from stool of symptomatic patients with diarrhea and poultry meat samples. Scale bar shows percentage of homology. Arrows show homology of the isolates among human and meat samples in clusters A and B. P and S refer to poultry and stool samples, respectively


Out of 75 chicken meat and 22 human stool isolates, resistance to the 3rd generation cephalosporines was detected in 1 and 0 of the Salmonella isolates, respectively. Resistance to cefoxitin was detected in 7 strains of the chicken isolates. Screening of the resistant isolates with β-lactamase inhibitor, cefotaxime (30μg), cefotaxime-clavulanic acid (10 μg-30 μg) (MAST UK product), and AmpC detection set (Mast Group, UK) confirmed the existence of AmpC phenotype among 14.2% (1/7) of these strains. The PCR results showed that none of the relevant genes, except blaTEM, were detected in the isolates with related resistance phenotypes. blaTEM was detected in 4 isolates of the chicken meat samples that were resistant to cefoxitin.


This study was supported by a grant from the National Institute for Medical Research Development, Islamic Republic of Iran (Code: 958101). The Molecular Microbiology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran, provides technical facility and equipment. The authors would like to thank all colleagues in National Institute for Medical Research Development, Islamic Republic of Iran; The Center for Communicable Diseases Control, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran; Reference Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran; staff of Molecular Microbiology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran; and Technicians of four laboratories in hospitals that the stool samples were collected. We also would like to thank Dr. K. Amini and Dr. Sh. Nazarian for providing control samples.


In tumor cells the metabolic products of retinol may have an impact on their growth and differentiation by activating nuclear receptors of retinoids. Retinoic acid is associated with greater affinity with the retinoic acid receptor comparing with receptors of X retinoids [21]. In addition, there is the evidence that antiproliferative activity of retinoic acid is mediated through RAR-beta, and not through the RAR-alpha or RAR-gamma. It is shown that the expression of RAR-beta is reduced in the cell lines of tumors of the human kidney that are resistant to retinoic acid [4]. Retinoic acid may also bind with heterodimers, such as RAR-RXR.


We analyzed TCGA RNA-Seq datasets (read counts) for kidney cancers using CrossHub software [28]. Using CrossHub, we have profiled expression levels of these transcripts in both paired and pooled samples and analyzed associations with disease stage, follow-up status, TNM indexes.


Genes RARA, RARB and RARG (RAR family). In most of the samples (66%) the RARA gene expression did not change. In 29% of cases there was an increase in its expression up to 16-fold. A frequent increase in expression was observed in samples of predominantly II and III stages (60% and 67% of cases, respectively). In one sample was revealed a slight decrease in the expression of RARA gene in 2 times. The mean value of relative mRNA level for the whole sample was 1.6.


In 19% of samples of ccRCC was shown an increased RXRB gene expression in 2-8 times. In 19% there was a decrease in its expression in 2-5 times. In 62% of studied samples the expression of RXRB gene was not changed. The mean value of relative mRNA level for the entire sample was 1,0.


Genes RXRA and RXRB (RXR family). In most types of human carcinoma was shown a disruption of the expression of genes encoding receptors of X retinoids. Thus, it was revealed an increase in the expression of RXRA gene in laryngeal cancer, and breast cancer. At non-small cell lung cancer, stomach cancer and thyroid cancer was shown a decrease in the expression of RXRA gene [6; 54;20]. For RXRB gene in a number of studies was shown a reduced expression in cancer of the head and neck, gastric cancer, prostate, thyroid and non-small cell lung cancer [6; 2; 20; 33; 46; 54]. In patients with ovarian cancer at a late stage is revealed an overexpression of RXRB gene [23]. In the modern literature there are no data about the RXRA gene expression and RXRB in kidney tumors. It is shown that the expression of RXRA gene is increased in about a quarter of the samples, while the increase and decrease of RXRA expression occur with the same frequency. However, the data demonstrate the involvement of genes of receptors family of X retinoids in carcinogenesis in cRCC and there is a deregulation of their expression. Perhaps the level of expression of these genes is related to certain characteristics of the tumor.


Your First Cup: An Introduction to the Jakarta EE Platform.For beginning Jakarta EE programmers, this short tutorial explains the entireprocess for developing a simple enterprise application.The sample application is a web application that consists of a component that isbased on the Enterprise JavaBeans specification, a JAX-RS web service,and a JavaServer Faces component for the web front end.


The Jakarta EE Samples project is a collection of sample applications thatdemonstrate a broad range of Jakarta EE technologies. The Jakarta EE Samplesare bundled with the Jakarta EE Software Development Kit (SDK) and are alsoavailable from the repository( -ee4j/glassfish-samples).


Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, generally called 3D printing, are widely used because their use provides a high added value in manufacturing complex-shaped components and objects. Defects may occur within the components at different time of manufacturing, and in this regard, non-destructive techniques (NDT) represent a key tool for the quality control of AM components in many industrial fields, such as aerospace, oil and gas, and power industries. In this work, the capability of active thermography and eddy current techniques to detect real imposed defects that are representative of the laser powder bed fusion process has been investigated. A 3D complex shape of defects was revealed by a µCT investigation used as reference results for the other NDT methods. The study was focused on two different types of defects: porosities generated in keyhole mode as well as in lack of fusion mode. Different thermographic and eddy current measurements were carried out on AM samples, providing the capability to detect volumetric irregularly shaped defects using non-destructive methods. 041b061a72


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